More Information

This page contains information on:

1. Forest Reproductive Material (Great Britain) Regulations

2. Publications

1. Forest Reproductive Material (Great Britain) Regulations 2002 (from FC website)

“Forest Reproductive Material (FRM) is the generic name for the seeds, cones, cuttings and planting stock used in forest establishment.  The 46 tree species and the genus Populus (including aspen, black poplar and grey poplar) covered by the Regulations are known as the ‘controlled species’.

The Forest Reproductive Material (Great Britain) Regulations 2002 regulate the marketing of FRM.  These Regulations came into force on 1st January 2003 and implement EC Directive 1999/105.  The Forestry Commission is the Official Body that is responsible for the FRM Regulations in England, Scotland and Wales.

Guidance about how the Regulations have been implemented is available (see FC website).

What the Regulations do
The Regulations provide a system of identification and control of seeds, cuttings and planting stock used for forestry purposes in Great Britain.  This is defined as “woodland planting of any description for any forestry purpose including, timber production, forests and woodlands for tourist, recreational, sporting, educational or amenity purposes and the conservation and enhancement of the forest and woodland environment.

The Regulations ensure that planting stock is traceable through the collection and production process to a registered source of basic material (e.g. trees from which the seed is collected or cuttings taken).

This allows those who buy FRM to have sufficient information about the material being bought, such as provenance and origin.”

For more information, check the FC website.

Try this page:

Or go to and type FRM in the Search box

2. Publications

Forestry Commission (2001). Using local stock for planting native trees and shrubs. Forestry Practice Note 8. Available from FC website.

Tree Council (2001). The Good Seed Guide.

Gordon, A. G. (Ed.) (1992). Seed Manual for Forest Trees. Forestry Commission Bulletin 83.

Gordon, A. G. & Rowe, D. C. F. (1982). Seed Manual for Ornamental Trees and Shrubs. Forestry Commission Bulletin 59.

Aldhous, J. R. & Mason, W. L. (Eds.) (1994). Forest Nursery Practice. Forestry Commission Bulletin 111.

Browne, D. (2001). Our Trees – A Guide to Growing Northern Ireland’s Native Trees from Seed. Conservation Volunteers Northern Ireland.

Kiser, B. (1978). Trees and Aftercare – A Practical Handbook. British Trust for Conservation Volunteers.

McCracken, P. (2001). How to Run a Successful Small Tree Nursery. This is based on the FC nursery practice bulletin, but has been simplified and made more relevant for small businesses. It includes marketing and business planning advice. Price £19.95, available from Taynuilt trees – see nursery list.